Biosaintifika 9 (2) (2017) Biosaintifika. Journal of Biology & Biology Education

Biosaintifika 9 (2) (2017) 345-356

Biosaintifika

Journal of Biology & Biology Education http://journal.unnes.ac.id/nju/index.php/biosaintifika

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in Karangwangi, District of Cianjur, West Java 

Desak Made Malini, Madihah, Joko Kusmoro, Fitri Kamilawati, Johan Iskandar

DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v9i2.5756 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

History Article

Abstract

Received 12 April 2016 Approved 25 July 2017 Published 17 August 2017

The knowledge and usage of plant as medicinal remedy by current generation are not as extensive as previous; therefore, many rural communities with restricted modern medical access still rely on traditional medicine. This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in Karangwangi Village Keywords of Cianjur District, West Java Indonesia. This study aimed to identify plants colethnobotany; medicinal plants; lected for medical purposes by the local people as well as to document the local Karangwangi Village; Cianjur names, uses, preparation, and location of these plants. Ethno botanical data was recorded by opting people participation and key informant approach involving semistructured interviews, group discussions and filling of questionnaires. The results showed a total of 114 medicinal plants belonging to 50 families were identified. Zingiberaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species), followed by Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae (seven species each). The most-used plant parts were leaves (51.8%), followed by stems (22.9%) and the most common preparations were decoction, poultice and squeezed. Most of the plants were obtained from the house-yard and total of 30 medicinal uses were recorded. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study showed that this area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. Ethnobotanical heritage should be preserved, however, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. Further, the findings can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation for analyzing phytochemical, pharmaceutical and other biological activities for future drug discovery.

How to Cite Malini, D. M., Madihah, Kusmoro, J., Kamilawati, F., & Iskandar, J. (2017). Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in Karangwangi, District of Cianjur, West Java. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 9(2), 345-356.

© 2017 Universitas Negeri Semarang Correspondence Author: Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km. 21 Jatinangor 45363, West Java, Indonesia E-mail: [email protected]



p-ISSN 2085-191X e-ISSN 2338-7610

Desak Made Malini et al. / Biosaintifika 9 (2) (2017) 345-356 INTRODUCTION Many kinds of medicinal plants have been used worldwide, especially in rural communities of developing countries. The using of plants as medicine has been done for generations and was passed on from one generation to the next (Kumalasari, 2006). The World Health Organization or WHO was recommend the use of traditional medicine, including herbs in the maintenance of public health, prevention and treatment of disease, especially for chronic diseases degenerative diseases and cancer (Patwardhan, 2005). The WHO also acknowledges the value of traditional medicine and the preservation and protection of this knowledge is one of their objectives (WHO, 2002). This traditional knowledge, however, is documented only to a limited extent, and is in danger of being lost. This is largely due to social changes within the communities, such as dislocation and westernization, and the death of the elders with this knowledge (Smith, 1991) as well as deforestation and environmental degradation (Giday et al., 2009). This trend in loss of traditional knowledge is being seen worldwide (Brouwer et al., 2005). Indonesian society have long been familiar with and used plants as medicine in tackling health problems, including in rural communities. The local people of the rural areas have good knowledge about the uses of plants and they prefer medicinal plants due to their easy availability and cheap therapy as compared to costly pharmaceuticals. Data from Basic Medical Research (Riskesdas) on 2013 showed 35.2 % Indonesian society still retain and use traditional medicine for remedies (Shanthi et al., 2014). Inhabitants of the remote areas have discovered the therapeutic activity of medicinal plants against certain diseases through their indigenous experiences (Bibi et al., 2014). Karangwangi village of Cianjur Regency, West Java, based on the classification Schmidt and Ferguson (1951), is included in type B with an average rainfall of 1840 mm/year. The type of vegetation in climate of type B (wet) is tropical rainforest. While the topography of the village has a height between 0 to 250 meters above the sea level (masl). The Karangwangi is a village that directly adjacent to the Bojonglarang Jayanti nature reserve area. The existence of this natural reserve affects the diversity of flora and fauna in the Karangwangi village, including the plant that used as herbal medicine. Karangwangi village was administratively about 27 years old and was a separation of the Cidaun village, but there was

no health center. Otherwise, in rural communities of Sundanese, who inhabit West Java and are the second largest ethnic group in Indonesia, traditional herbal medicine has still played an important role in treatment of illnesses (Roosita et al., 2008). The advantages of traditional medicines include its widespread accessibility and relative cheapness, when most people in Indonesia pay for medicines out of their own pocket. Therefore, it is necessary to inventory the kind of medicinal plants and their utilization by the community so that traditional knowledge of the medicinal plants can be documented and preserved. This study aimed (1) to identify plants collected for medical purposes by the local people as well as to document the local names, uses and preparation, as well as the location of these plants, (2) to characterize the plant by which them categorized as medicinal herbal; (3) to identify the transfer knowledge of medicinal plants to the younger generation, and (4) to count the enthusiasm of people to preserve their knowledge and skills to produce of herbal medicine. The results of this study are expected to document first hand traditional and contemporary knowledge as well as to provide information to communities that can be used for their cultural or educational purposes. METHODS This research was conducted in Karangwangi village, located in Cidaun subdistrict, Cianjur district, West Java Province, Indonesia. Geographically, this village is situated about 200275 m above sea level. Temperature scarcely fluctuates in the year; with the mean monthly was 35OC, and annual rainfall reaches 3500 mm/year. The village was bordered by Cimaragang village in the north, Indian Ocean in the south, Sindangbarang village in the west, and Ciringin village of Garut district in the east (Figure 1). Karangwangi Village, the land area of which is 2300 ha, was inhabited by 5587 people or 1817 households (Iskandar and Iskandar, 2016). The majority occupations of the Villagers were farming. In Karangwangi Village, there was limited access to a modern health center. Commercials drugs, however, were available to the Villagers at many retailers. On the other hand, there were “dukun” (traditional or herbalist healer) who recognized by the local people. The method used in this research is qualitative approach with descriptive analysis and based on ethnobotanical approach (Martin, 1995; Cunningham, 2001; Newing et at, 2011).

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Desak Made Malini et al. / Biosaintifika 9 (2) (2017) 345-356 Data was collected by semi-structured interviews with informants (local leader, “dukun”) and direct observation in the field. Determination of the respondents used the snowball method (Bernard, 2004) and each respondent were requested information about medicinal plants, local name, utilization and processing method which has been used by communities in Karangwangi. Interview results were analyzed by cross-checking, summarizing and synthesizing from sources in order to build up a narrative account (Newing et al., 2011).

Figure 1. The Location of Karangwangi Village in Cidaun Subdistrict, Cianjur District, West Java Indonesia On direct observation, each plant samples were found in Karangwangi village was collected, herbarium materials were prepared and the specimens were entitled. Plant identification process carried out directly in the field and a complete identification was carried out in the Laboratory of Botanical Taxonomy of Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,

Padjadjaran University. Plant identification process was based on morphological characteristics of the plant (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds and fruit) and was using Buku Tumbuhan Obat Komersial (Siswanto, 2004), Atlas Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia, Jilid 6 (Dalimartha, 2009) and the book of Flora (Van Steenis, 2005). Ethno botanical data was descriptive analyzed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Medicinal Plants Reported A total of 114 species belonging to 50 families were recorded from the study area, which categorized into herbs, shrubs, and trees (Table 1). The Family Zingiberaceae (7.9%) contributes the highest number of medicinal plants (nine species), followed by Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae (seven species each). It was found that Erythrina variegata, Annona muricata, Morinda citrifolia, Physialis angulata, and Artocarpus altilis were the most commonly used species. The families Zingiberaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae have accounted for the highest number of Karangwangi medicinal plants which could probably be due to their high species and the compositions of secondary metabolites, for instance Zingeberaceae contained alkaloid, saponin, tannin, and flavonoid (Hartanto et al., 2014); Asteraceae contained triterpenoid, saponin, and steroid (Bhom et al., 2001); Euphorbiaceae contained diterpenes, triterpenes, flavonoids, saponin, and tannin (Mwine and Vam Damme, 2011), and Fabaceae contained flavonoid, alkaloid, terpenoid, steroid (Wink. 2013). Antioxidant properties from such secondary metabolites were not reduced when the plant was prepared using two traditional culinary and medicinal recipes (Tilak et al., 2004). The components of secondary metabolites correspond to the characteristic of the plants that usually categorized as medicinal herbal. High versatility of medicinal plants could also indicate higher diversity of active compounds contained by the species (Giday et al., 2009). Most of the respondent said that Zingiberaceae was the most commonly used as medicinal plants because they were easily cultivated in the home garden and alternatively could be used as food spicy. The study that conducted by Roosita et al. (2008) showed that Zingiberaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most common medicinal plants family that used by the villagers and herbalist healer in Sukajadi village located in Bogor district. Zingiberaceae was also commonly used by local people in Pangea, District

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Table 1. Medicinal Plants Used by Karangwangi Villagers. Botanical name / latin name

Local name

Use

Parts of plants

Graptophyllum pictum  (L.) Griff.

Handeuleum

Hemorrhoids

Leaves

Sericocalyx crispus (L.) Bremek.

Ki beling

Low back pain

Leaves

Acoraceae

Calamus sp.

Hoe

Cough

Shoot

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus viridis L.

Bayem

Anemia

Leaves

Anacardiaceae

Anacardium occidentale  L.

Jambu monyet

Mouth sores

Leaves

Annonaceae

Annona muricata L.

Manalika

Low back pain, Fever, High blood pressure,

Leaves

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

Antanan

Wounds, Gastritis

Leaves

Apium graveolens L.

Saledri

High blood pressure

Leaves

Alstonia scholaris  (L.) R. Br.

Lame

Toothache

Stem

Colocasia gigantea  (Blume)

Kajar-kajar

Cough

Stem

Colocasia esculenta  (L.) Schott

Teleus lempong

Cough

Shoot

Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms

Gordah

Urinary disease

Leaves

Polyscias scutellaria (Burm.f.) Fosberg

Mamangkokan

Low back pain

Leaves

Uncaria gambir  (Hunter) Roxb.

Gambir

Intestinal inflammation

Leaves

Areca catechu  L.

Jambe

Low back pain, IntesLeaves tinal inflammation

Arenga pinnata  (Wurmb) Merr.

Kawung

Low back pain

Root

Cocos nucifera L.

Kelapa hijau

Low back pain, Diarrhea

Root

Salacca zalacca  (Gaertn.) Voss

Salak

Urinary disease

Shoot

Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A.Chev

Hanjuang

Cough

Shoot

Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L.

Babadotan

Fever

Leaves

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.

Capituheur

Wounds

Leaves

Erigeron linifolius  Willd.

Jalantir

Eyes infection

Stem

Chromolaena odorata  (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Jatong / Nampong

Wounds, Eyes infection

Leaves

Eupatorium inulifolium  Kunth

Kirinyuh

Wounds, Gastritis

Leaves

Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC

Sembung

Low back pain

Leaves

Elephantopus scaber  L.

Tapak liman

Uric acid

Leaves

Athyriaceae

Diplazium esculentum  (Retz.) Sw.

Taruk paku

Low back pain, IntesLeaves tinal disorders

Caricaceae

Carica papaya L.

Gedang karayunan

Malaria, Kidney disorder, Breastfeeding

Root

Clusiaceae

Garcinia x mangostana  L.

Manggu

High blood pressure

Fruit peel

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea batatas  (L.) Lam.

Hui boled

High blood pressure

Leaves

Costaceae

Cheilocostus speciosus  (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht

Pacing

High blood pressure, Wounds

Stem

Crassulaceae

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken

Buntiris

Fever

Leaves

Momordica charantia L.

Paria

Fever, Diabetes

Leaves

Sechium edule  (Jacq.) Sw.

Waluh

Fever, Gastritis

Leaves

Family

Acanthaceae

Apiaceae Apocynaceae Araceae Araliaceae

Arecaceae

Asparagaceae

Asteraceae

Cucurbitaceae

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Desak Made Malini et al. / Biosaintifika 9 (2) (2017) 345-356 Dioscoreaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Fabaceae

Dioscorea hispida  Dennst.

Gadung

Labor-related condition

Leaves

Abelmoschus manihot  (L.) Medik.

Edi

Fever

Leaves

Jatropha curcas  L.

Jarak pager

Toothache, Wounds

Leaves

Ricinus communis L.

Kaliki

Labor-related condition

Leaves

Euphorbia tirucalli  L.

Ki tulang

Toothache

Stem

Euphorbia hirta L.

Nanangkaan

Low back pain, Wounds

Stem

Jatropha multifida L.

Penisilin

Wounds

Stem

Manihot esculenta Crantz

Sampeu

Anemia, Gastritis

Leaves

Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC.

Areuy gongseng

Cough

Stem

Erythrina variegata L.

Dadap minyak

Cough, Low back pain, Fever, Eyes infection, Hookworm

Leaves

Archidendron pauciflorum  (Benth.) I.C.Nielsen

Jengkol

Diabetes

Fruit peel

Vigna radiata  (L.) R.Wilczek

Kacang hejo

Gastritis

Seed

Glycine max  (L.) Merr.

Kacang kedelai

Gastritis

Seed

Albizia saman (Jacq.) Merr.

Ki hujan

Eyes infection

Stem

Senna alata  (L.) Roxb.

Ki manila

Skin infections

Leaves

Le.ucaena leucocephala(Lam.) de Wi.t

Petai selong (Lamtoro)

Diabetes

Seed

Tectona grandis L.f.

Jati

Eye infections

Stem

Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R.Br.

Jawer kotok

Eye infections, Bruised

Leaves

Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

Kumis ucing

Low back pain, Diabetes

Leaves

Ocimum basilicum  L.

Surawung

Itching

Leaves Leaves

Lamiaceae

Lauraceae

Persea americana

Alpukat

High blood pressure, Gastritis

Lecythidaceae

Barringtonia macrocarpa  Hassk.

Songgom

Labor-related condition

Leaves

Allium cepa L.

Bawang Beureum

Fever

Bulb

Allium sativum L.

Bawang bodas

High blood pressure

Bulb

Scurrula atropurpurea  (Blume) Danser

Mangandeuh

Hemorrhoid

Leaves

Melochia umbellata (Houtt.) Stapf

Bintinu

Toothache

Stem

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  L.

Kembang Gumatu

Low back pain

Urena lobata L.

Pungpurutan

Low back pain, Dysentery

Leaves

Ceiba pentandra  (L.) Gaertn.

Randu

Fever, Urinary disease

Leaves

Marantaceae

Donax canniformis  (G.Forst.) K.Schum.

Bangban

Eyes infection

Stem

Melastomaceae

Melastoma polyanthum Burm. f.

Harendong

Accelerate the loosening of umbilical cord

Leaves

Meliaceae

Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

Mahoni

Diabetes

Seed

Liliaceae Loranthaceae

Malvaceae

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Leaves

Desak Made Malini et al. / Biosaintifika 9 (2) (2017) 345-356 Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson

Batrawali

Gastritis, bronchitis

Stem

Cyclea barbata  Miers

Cincau

Supplement, Common cold

Leaves

Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr.

Ki koneng

Low back pain, Hepatitis

Stem

Morus alba L.

Babasaran

High blood pressure

Leaves

Ficus septica Burm. f.

Kuciat

Itching

Leaves

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

Nangka

Gastritis, Cough

Leaves

Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn)

Sukun

High blood pressure, Gastritis

Leaves

Muntingia calabura L.

Kersen

Gastritis

Leaves

Musa x paradisiaca L.

Cau ambon

Wounds

Stem

Musa x paradisiaca L.

Cau beureum, Cau gembor, Cau mas

Fever

Musa x paradisiaca L.

Cau raja siem

Gastritis

Syzygium malaccense  (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Gulampo

Headache

Psidium guajava L.

Jambu batu

Diarrhea

Leaves

Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.

Salam

High blood pressure

Leaves

Oxalidaceae

Averrhoa carambola  L.

Balingbing

High blood pressure

Fruit

Phyllanthaceae

Sauropus androgynus  (L.) Merr.

Katuk

Eye infections

Stem

Piper aduncum  L.

Ki seureuh

Eye infections

Stem

Piper nigrum  L.

Pedes

Labor-related condition

Leaves

Piper betle L.

Seureuh

Wounds

Leaves

Plantago major L.

Ki urat

Wounds

Leaves

Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea (Steud.) Widjadja.

Awi gombong

Cough

Gigantochloa atroviolacea Widjadja.

Awi hideung

Cough

Stem

Oryza sativa L.

Beras

Bruised

Seed

Dinochloa scandens (Blume ex Nees) Kuntze

Cangkoreh

Eyes infection, Cough

Stem

Imperata cylindrica  (L.) Raeusch.

Eurih

Low back pain, Fever, Wounds

Root

Bambusa vulgaris Schard.Ex var striata

Haur koneng

Cough

Stem

Morinda citrifolia L.

Cangkudu

Cough, Gastritis, High blood pressure

Fruit

Gardenia jasminoides  J.Ellis

Kaca piring

Low back pain

Leaves

Citrus aurantiifolia  (Christm.) Swingle

Jeruk nipis

Cough, Toothache

Fruit

Clausena indica (Dalzell) Oliv.

Ki baceta

Cough, Fever , Asthma

Leaves

Gumotaceae

Manilkara zapota (L.) P.Royen

Sawo

Diarrhea

Leaves

Simaroubaceae

Eurycoma longifolia  Jack

Pasak bumi

Anti-malaria

Rhizome

Menispermaceae

Moraceae

Muntingiaceae

Musaceae

Myrtaceae

Piperaceae

Plantaginaceae

Poaceae

Rubiaceae

Rutaceae

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Stem

Fruit Leaves

Stem

Desak Made Malini et al. / Biosaintifika 9 (2) (2017) 345-356 Capsicum annum L.

Cabe

Wounds

Fruit

Physalis angulata L.

Cecendet

Low back pain Diabetes, Anti-malaria

Root

Solanum torvum Sw.

Takokak

High blood pressure

Fruit

Solanum betaceum Cav.

Terong walanda

Toothache

Stem

Thymelaeaceae

Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.

Mahkota dewa

High blood pressure

Peel

Urticaceae

Dendrocnide stimulans  (L.f.) Chew

Pulus

Cough

Stem

Vitaceae

Tetrastigma lanceolarium  (Roxb.) Planch.

Ki barela

Cough, Wounds

Kaempferia galanga  L.

Cikur

Bruised

Rhizome

Amomum maximum  Roxb.

Hangasa

Eye infections, Diabetes

Stem

Etlingera elatior  (Jack) R.M.Sm.

Honje

Fever

Flower

Zingiber officinale  Roscoe

Jahe

Supplement

Rhizome

Curcuma zanthorrhiza Roxb.

Koneng gede

Hepatitis, Gastritis

Rhizome

Curcuma domestica Valeton

Koneng temen

Gastritis, Intestinal disorder

Rhizome

Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd.

Laja

Cough

Rhizome

Zingiber cassumunar  Roxb.

Panglay

Itching

Leaves

Amomum aculeatum Roxb.

Parahulu

Headaches

Stem

Solanaceae

Zingiberaceae

of Kuantan Senggigi Riau as traditional medicinal herbal, especially to cure diseases associated with pregnancy and heredity problem, that used individually or in combination (Hartanto et al., 2014). Ethnobotanical study on traditional treatment for women in the Surakarta Hadiningrat Royal Palace Community by Shanthi et al. (2014) showed that Zingiberaceae and Fabaceae were used mostly families that utilized as traditional medicine. Silalahi et al. (2015) reported that Zingiberaceae was the most commonly medicinal plants which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market Karo Regency, North Sumatra Indonesia. Sukenti et al. (2016) also presented that Fabaceae contributed the highest number of species in ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of Sasak tribe in Lombok Island. Asteraceae is the largest medicinal plant family used by local people in district Mastung of Balochistan Province-Pakistan (Bibi et al., 2014). Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae also contributed the highest number of medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia (Giday et al., 2009). Ailments treated The reported of medicinal plants, most were used to treat human ailments and some for

Stem

livestock ailments. Concerning human ailments, a total of 30 medicinal uses (remedies) were recorded, with the highest proportions of medicinal plants were used to treat cough (34.2%), gastritis (21%), high blood pressure (14%), low back pain (12.3%), wound (11.4%), as well as eyes infection (8.7%). Some were used against diabetes, malaria, anemia, skin-related disease, tooth ache, postpartum remedy, urinary disease, anti-hookworm and as food supplement. Eighteen species of medicinal plants were used to treat cough, whereas gastritis was treated using fifteen species of medicinal plants. The most common ailments that suffer by Karangwangi people were respiratory disease (cough, asthma, common cold) and gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, diarrhea, intestinal disesase), could be attributed to the major health problem in communities. Ethnopharmaecological studies have shown that in some parts of the world, the respiratory and gastrointestinal disorder is the first use category (Bibi et al., 2014). Due to poor dietary conditions and unsafe drinking water, this ailment is one of the most common problems in the areas studied and infecting other parts of the world (Nasab and Khosravi, 2014).

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Desak Made Malini et al. / Biosaintifika 9 (2) (2017) 345-356 Plant parts used and modes of remedy preparation The study showed that the medicinal plants frequently used of fresh materials, for example leaves, and with modes of preparation was decoction. Leaves and stems were the most frequently sought plant parts accounting for 51.8 and 22.9 % of claimed medicinal plants, respectively. Few were harvested for their roots, shoots, fruits, seeds, bulbs, rhizomes, fruit peels and gums. The majority of remedies were harvested for immediate uses with the modes of preparation included decoction (84%), poultice (6%), “dicincau” (5%; the leaves were squeezed and the filtrate was drink directly), directly eaten (2%), “dituak” (1%; the stem was cut and the water droplet was drink directly), and 2% with another mode (“dipopo”-the sample was grinded and attached into the wounded skin; “dikopi”-the sample was dry-fried, grinded, and added some hot water; “dibuhbui”- the sample put into hot ashes until wilted before eaten). This result showed that local people performed frequently used of leaves decoction as medicine for various ailments, thus agree with the result of Bibi et al. (2014), de Boer and Cotingting (2014). Leaves was the botanical parts that most commonly used, because the villagers usually believe that leaves contained the highest medicinal properties and parts of plants that most easily harvested. A very high proportion of leaves was also observed in an ethnobotanical survey either in Sukajadi village, located in Tamansari subdistrict, Bogor district, Jawa Barat province (Roosita et al., 2008) or in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia (Mahyar et al., 1991). The remedies are mostly prepared from newly harvested plant part could indicate the availability of copious plant materials in the vicinity to be picked at any time (Giday et al., 2009), for example in the house yard where the medicinal plants are cultivated or planted by the villagers or harvested freely from the immediate environment in which they are abundantly found. In otherwise, there was prohibition to enter the nature reserves for the villagers, so the location to obtain the medicinal plants was limited. Route of administration and dosage The most frequent routes of administration herbal preparations were oral (92%), while 6% were taken topical application, and for 2% with other modes, for examples to treat eyes infection, the stems gum was dropped directly to the eyes. More than half of the daily doses were administered once. In many cases, amounts of

plant part/parts to be processed and doses to be used were roughly estimated and therefore, lacked precision. If patients did not show any sign of improvement over the treatment period, they were used commercial drugs or referred to nearby modern health centers. It was noted that dosage was influenced, among others, by the type of ailment, seriousness of the illness and age of the patient. According to few informants the dosage depends on the age and physical appearance of the individual and children are given less than adults. Same sort of conclusions have been observed in another studies (Roosita et al., 2008; Giday et al., 2009) Location of medicinal plants Great majority of medicinal plants were located in the house yard (55%) and fewer were located in the crop fields and paddy fields, as well as in the Bojong Larang Jayanti Nature reserve. The villagers raised medicinal plants, either cultivars or transplanted wild species, in their home gardens or in the fields. If they get some illness, usually they collected the plants from the home garden firstly, not only on their own but also from the neighbors, and then they were search in the fields or the nature reserve. Some of this medicinal plants reported to be occasionally cultivated primarily for its medicinal value. This result supported by Roosita et al. (2008) that in rural communities of Sundanese, many villagers raised and collected medicinal plant in their home garden. Therefore, the remedies were freely harvested from the immediate environment by those who needed them. Characteristics of plant by which categorized as herbal medicines Most of the respondent did not know how to categorize the plants as herbal medicines, but a number of respondent assumed that the plants usually have characteristics as watery, sticky, bitter, and abrasive. The watery plants could use as remedy for cough, cold, and fever; the sticky plants could use as remedy for infections because the gum was believed would kill the bacteria; otherwise the bitter and abrasive plants could use as remedy for internal diseases, such as gastrointestinal diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, malaria, and etc. Transfer of medicinal plants knowledge Most of the respondent said that the knowledge of the using medicinal plant was obtained from parents (57%), or by directly observation from the community (30%), and fewer said from

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another information media, i.e. books, television, or health educator that came into the area. The heritage of medicinals plant relies on an oral tradition between parents and their children. Most of the informant described memories of being treated with herbs for illness as a child and said that they subsequently continued to learn from

parents or knowledgeable elders. It was revealed that many ailments are diagnosed and treated at household or family level. The majority of the informants agreed that they kept their medicinal plant knowledge secret. This way of sharing knowledge has resulted in the loss of many drugs and prescriptions.

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The enthusiasm of people to preserve their knowledge and skills to produce of herbal medicine. More than 80% of the respondent villagers still used the medicinal plants to cure their illnesses, however, the skill to produce herbal medicines was obtained by hit and trial methods, or get directly from their parents. In young generation, however, the enthusiasm to used herbal medicine was decreasing. This study revealed that herbal medicine has played a significant role in treatment of illnesses in the study village. Some of the reasons of their high dependence on herbal medicine came from easily harvested and preparation, low cost expended, natural and low side effect, no expired time as well as more powerful that commercial drugs and closer location of the healer’s house than the health center or hospital. CONCLUSION A total of 114 medicinal plants belonging to 50 families were identified in the region. The most common families were Zingiberaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae. Various plant parts were used and the most common preparations were decoction, poultice and squeezed. A total of 30 medicinal uses (remedies) were recorded. Most of the plants were obtained from the home garden and usually characterized by watery, sticky, bitter, and abrasive surface of the plants. The knowledge of the using medicinal plant was mostly obtained from parents and the use of herbal medicine was still widespread among the people. In young generation, however, the enthusiasm to used herbal medicine was decreasing. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The research was supported by Academic

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